Learning and Teaching Critical Thinking

To help participants develop critical thinking skills. 


Medical doctors, Medical teachers, Medical residents, Medical students, Allied health professionals

Critical thinking, the ability that helps us make the best decisions when deciding what to believe or what to do, is a skill that is at the top of the list of the skills needed to be a successful professional or worker in the XXI century. This skill is also very useful regarding one's personal life.

Most of us have had little or no formal instruction in developing this skill. This course aims to present the basic concepts and processes that will help participants develop a structured path to make sound decisions when deciding what to believe or what to do in their professional and personal lives.

The course is designed to be completed over 8 weeks and is expected to require 2–3 hours a week, depending on the participant's previous experience and knowledge. 

By the end of the course participants will:

  • Improve their skills to make deliberate decisions in both professional and personal settings
  • Facilitate group decision making by presenting an effective model for discussions
  • Teachers will be better equipped to help students develop their own critical thinking skills.
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Module 0: Introductions

By the end of this section you should be able to:
Describe the different parts of the user interface.
Describe where each link in the interface will take you to.
Navigate throughout the course.

  • Honorary Head of the Eye Department, Italian Hospital of Buenos Aires.
  • E-Learning director of the Pan American Association of Ophthalmology.
  • E-Learning director of the International Council of Ophthalmology.

Dr. Eduardo Mayorga

  • Recorded audiovisual lectures
  • Selected readings
  • Discussion forums
  • Quizzes
  • Practice scenarios
  • Performance support documents

Module 1: Definitions

By the end of this Module, you should be able to:
Define what critical thinking is.
Explain the importance of critical thinking.

  • Desktop computer. (The course may or may not run on Pads or Cell Phones.)
  • Broadband Internet connection.
  • Adobe Acrobat Reader installed in your computer. (Free software.)
  • Proof of purchase of the selected readings. (Approximate cost is US$32.)
  • There is no charge for participating in this course, but because we will be using copyrighted material you must show proof of purchase of this material to access the course content.
  • The materials are available in the “Kindle” format for online reading via your computer, phone, or tablet.


Module 7: Clinical reasoning: Problem solving

By the end of this section, you will be able to:
Apply the Elements of Thought and Intellectual Standards to patient care,
Describe and explain the difference between questions on procedures and questions on judgment.

Module 3: Intellectual Standards

By the end of this Module you will be able to:
Explain what "Intellectual Standards" means.
Enumerate the main intellectual standards we can use for evaluating the elements of thought.
Apply these concepts while reviewing and analyzing your thoughts or the ones from others.
Accelerate videos if you find the pace of the speaker is too slow for you.
Use the time bar as a menu to find segments inside a video.

Module 5:  Sociocentricity

By the end of this Module, you will be able to:
Define what sociocentricity is.
Explain how it relates and compares to egocentricity and critical thinking.
Explain how egocentricity and sociocentricity strive to justify themselves as rational ways of though

Module 8: Critical Thinking beyound this Course

By the end of this section you will be able to identify at what stage of development of your critical thinking you are and plan your ongoing growth.

Module 2: The Elements of Thought

By the end of this section you will be able to:
Explain why we need to learn and practice critical thinking,
Describe when and where critical thinking can be applied,
Enumerate the 3 steps of the process of critical thinking,
Enumerate and explain the elements of thought.

Module 4: The Functions of the Mind

By the end of this Module you will be able to:
Describe three of the main functions of the mind,
Explain the concepts of “irrationality” as opposed to “rationality” when describing thinking,
Explain what “egocentrism” means,
Differentiate “skillful” egocentrism from “unskillful” egocentrism

Module 6: Analyzing articles

By the end of this Module, you will be able to:
Analyze the logic of any kind of article
Use a guide to help you with the analysis

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Funding for this Online Course is made possible in part by Glaukos Corporation. We thank all of the supporters of the ICO's Teaching the Teachers Initiative.